Here We Discuss Different Science Related Stuffs... Chapters & Contains. Innovations in Science world And Some Knowledge Stuff ... Come And See & Let Us Know How You Feel

How Birds Navigate Their Path ? | Quantum Compass

Understanding how birds navigate has fascinated scientists for generations. We finally cracked that odd egg. Its turn out that they have Quantum Compass in their eyes. Like they have sixth-sense kind of thing, but its all can be explained by science.

Half of all bird species migrate to find food as the season turns cold. The exact pathway and location change between species, but they all follow a more or less North-South pattern. That's incredible and it is even true for those that hunt on land. Birds will take the most direct route even that means flying over Big bodies of Water to conserve energy.

But how do these birds know where to go! They don't know how to follow roads or to turn at any landmark. Also, they are a bird, how a bird even know what's a landmark is! They are birds not human. But Birds do have one advantage a built-in compass.

New evidence from two separate studies, one looking at Zebra Finches and the other one European Robins, found that some migrating birds have proteins in their eyes that gives them a sort of " Sixth Sense". It allows them to detect the Earth's magnetic field. That's pretty amazing, right?

In both species, the researchers studied the proteins Cry1, Cry2 and Cry4. These three proteins are called Cryptochromes that are associated with their bodies' internal Circadian Clock. They found that Cry1 and Cry2 levels rise and fall in regular circles during the day. But the level of Cry4 is constant. The simplest explanation is that birds need to produce this protein all the time for some reason. So they look more closely at Cry4.

This protein Cry4 is a peculiar one. It is clustered in a part of the bird's retina, which is very sensitive to blue light. This protein is made from a kind of molecule that some time has an odd number of electrons. The scientists theorize, that as incoming light enters the eye, a photon hits the Cryptochrome proteins and that excites the electron on it. That energy is then transferred between two molecules within the protein yielding two free electrons that are Quantum entangled and therefore, correlated. Scientists theorize the electron's spin form a coherent Quantum state reacts to a weak external magnetic field, for example, the Earth's magnetic field.

Basically, if they are right, these two electrons are reacting to the birds fly through the Earth's magnetic field. As the bird turns or moves, the electrons spin differently, causing different messages to be sent to the bird's brain. The chemical signals that are sent to the bird's brain, allow it to detect the magnetic field within 5-degree accuracy. Theoretically, if they are right.

The Cry4 protein essentially acts like a magnetic compass. Birds always get enough blue light that hit the retina to trigger the electrons' spin to release that chemical any time of a day. Which is insane if you think about it. Because when we humans study Quantum particles it requires supper cooling atoms in a lab environment and not to forget those complex huge machinery. But the inside of a birds eye is warm yet chaotic. So How the heck does they work out Quantum entanglement?

 We really don't know. We also don't know how the chemical signal part of the compass sends messages to the brain or how the birds perceive the magnetic field. We need a bird's eye view, to feel this final piece of the puzzle. More research is obviously needed.

Sand Crisis

It's time we talk about a new global crisis the Sand Crisis. Only a few of us think about the role sand plays in our daily lives. Sand is used to make glass, electronics and in fracking. Huge quantities of sand have been dumped into the sea to reclaim land for development, while other cities need it to shore up islands against rising sea levels. But it mostly used in construction.

Sand is the remains of pulverized and weathered rock mixed with shell fragments and other bits and pieces that washed up and left as sediment from a body of water. Because of that sand is unique to Where You Find It, its composition depends on the rocks and minerals in that part of the world, some of which are sturdy and last longer than others.

With populations rising, sand is quickly becoming a hot commodity. Because not all sand is created equal. The fine-grained sand of the Sahara, for example, does not make an appropriate building material. Instead, coarser sand must be mined Usually, from the banks of local rivers and coastlines. This brings a whole host of environmental and human problems, but also makes for a valuable export. You think SAND is everywhere, but it's NOT.

Modern cities use a lot of sand in construction. The global total for sand mining in 2010 was about 11 billion metric tons. Sand is a globalized commodity, whose trade value has increased sixfold in the last quarter-century. For Sand! Some cities are built on sand-heavy foundations but mostly it's used to make concrete and asphalt. The nation like Dubai import the right kind of sand for construction even though Dubai is surrounded by desert, desert-sand is not strong enough for concrete. So the necessary sand is imported from Australia.

Cities experiencing incredible growth rates are using a lot of sand. According to estimates, China used more concrete from 2011 to 2014 than the US used through out the entire 20th century and their rate is not slowing down. Because of this booming urbanization, sand mining has increased with some pretty negative consequences.

Sand for construction in Shanghai, sand was originally dredged from the bottom of the Yangtze River. But bridges were damaged, the river bank collapsed and the shipping industry was disrupted so much that dredging the river bottom was banned. Now nearby Lake Poyang is dredged. But it's not just structural.

Sand dredging is taking a toll on the environment too. Dropping water levels can damage nearby wetlands, destroy the habitat for migratory birds and putting animals that rely on that water source on endangered species lists. Sand extraction in Kenya damaged coral reefs. In India, it's a threat to rare crocodiles. In Indonesia, sand mining wiped out whole islands.

So, what can we do about this SAND CRISIS?
One solution could be developing new materials with all the properties of sand for use in construction. Another could be to find an alternative to concrete for building.

Whatever the case, this is soon to be something we can't ignore. Recycling concrete could help, but some might not be able to set up the infrastructure to do that. Finding an alternative to sand is ideal, but difficult, it would be hard to replace something that has been so abundant and cheap until now.

So, next time you are shaking the sand out off your shoes at the beach, remember, this material is important. It's a natural resource. it's not renewable. Like a lot of nature, it's got a lot of value. We are finally recognizing our insane use of the sand as a problem and that is the first step to find a solution.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You

The Van Allen Belts | Its Effect On Astronauts

There is an invisible magnetic force field surrounding our planet, protecting us from harmful solar winds that could annihilate Earth. But, this protective blanket is also a swirling ring full of deadly radiation and to leave Earth's atmosphere astronauts have to pass through it.

The Van Allen belts are rings of energetically charged particles that have been captured by Earth's magnetic field. They got their name from the Physicist named James Van Allen. Back in the 1950s, Van Allen launched a rockoon, a rocket lifted by a balloon above the atmosphere and it detected the first hint of radiation at higher altitudes. Then Explorer 1, the first American satellite to orbit Earth, launched on January 13, 1958, confirmed that Earth's magnetosphere was trapping the subatomic particles.

The Van Allen belts were the first major scientific discovery of early Space Age and they posed a serious challenge for space travel. High-speed subatomic particles can tear through DNA, increasing the risk of cancer and other desires. So sending astronauts through these particles is not ideal and even though they are flying in a shielded spacecraft, doses of radiation can still seep through. But there is no way around the Van Allen belts. In order to reach space, astronauts have to fly through them.

There are Two belts, First the inner belt which is comprised of protons and then the outer belt which has mostly high energy-electrons. One solution, proposed by Mr Van Allen himself, suggested detonating a nuclear boom in the inner belt to clear out some of the subatomic particles. Van Allen's plan never executed, but in 1962, the United States did carry out a nuclear test in space, dubbed StarFish Prime. They wanted to see if detonating a 1.4 megaton boom in low-Earth orbit could augment and expand the Van Allen Belts, but the explosion actually ends up adding more radiation around our planet.

So, for the Apollo mission, NASA  had to create a radiation barrier within the spacecraft and figure out a trajectory that avoided the thickest, most radioactive parts of the belts while travelling as fast as possible. Scientists determined that if the speed of the Apollo spacecraft was about 25,000 kilometres per hour, it would take a spacecraft about 52.8 minutes to pass through the belts. Based on that information scientists found that the radiation doses received during that amount of time would be, at most, 11.4 rads and that's without the protection of a spacecraft. Since a lethal radiation dosage for a human is 300 rads in one hour, so NASA deemed the missions a go. After all that, it turned out that during the Apollo missions the average radiation doses on the skin of the astronauts came out to be 0.38 rad which is about the same radiation you would receive by getting two CT scans of your head.

So while the Van Allen belts are lethal, they could really only kill an astronaut if they were to spend several days in their radioactive vicinity and despite the challenges the belts create when leaving Earth, we should actually be thanking them for protecting life on our planet from utter annihilation.

NASA’s Cryosleep Chamber | Is long-term Snoozing like Ripley In Alien Even Possible?

Space travel takes a really long time and as much as I love Netflix and Pizza, hanging out and eating snacks may not be the best strategy for killing time on our way to the red planet. That's because being awake for that long means we are gonna need to eat and drink and all of those normal human things, which means bringing a lot of supplies with us. That's not super practical. But if we have learned anything from movies, the solution is to sleep our way through space. But is long-term snoozing like Ripley in Alien even possible?

To tackle this space sleep conundrum, let's start with the basic, without the assistance of sedatives or fancy chambers, we have to know how long humans can sleep on our own. Typically we only sleep about eight hours per night and though that can vary, it's unusual for healthy adults to regularly sleep over 10 hours. But in the 1960s two volunteers put sleep duration to the test. They were monitored as they lived, isolated, underground for several months. In the absence of daylight, their sleep cycles got real crazy. One guy fell asleep for 30 hours and woke up thinking it was just a short nap! 30 hours!

In following years researchers did more organized, controlled studies and they found that when isolated from light and other external markers of time, it's not that uncommon for us to fall into longer sleep cycles. All of this could be a great natural starting point for hacking our sleep to fit our space travel need. But it won't get us all the way there since extended sleep periods are often followed by extended waking periods. So we are gonna need something a little more sophisticated than a dark room to get us into Deep Space.

Luckily for future Mark Watney out there, there are lots of scientists trying to figure this out.  One of the most exciting projects is in the work at a company called SpaceWorks Enterprises and yes, that is the name of a real company that actually exists. They have been working with NASA to develop a stasis chamber that could keep astronauts asleep for 2 weeks at a time and possibly longer. Now, I know what you are thinking, two weeks that's not enough to get me to Mars and you are right. But SpaceWorks has a plan for that they suggest stacking these shorter hibernation periods back to back with a couple of days in between to walk around and stretch out. The crew can rotate waking and sleeping shifts and Voila. You will be in deep space before you know it.

First, this design isn't for an individual sleep pod, but a shared sleeping chamber. The chamber works by lowering a group of astronaut's body temperatures to 32 degrees Celsius, then it sedates them to suppress the body's reactions to the cold. The low temperature would put their bodies into a mild hypothermia, slowing down your metabolic rate and preventing injury from lack of oxygen. Robotic arms will check up on the astronauts while they slumber and any bodily waste will be.. well, let's just say there are catheters involved. Sounds like hypersleep to me.

Aside from greatly reducing the necessary food and water for the mission these stasis chambers could also have some other major benefits, like requiring a smaller area to be thoroughly protected from radiation. The researchers also want to equip the chambers with artificial gravity which could prevent a lot of the negative health effects associated with long-term space travel.

But, Danger Alert!, don't try taking one of these bad boys to Proxima Centauri. We still have not figured out how to slow down ageing, so even though you would not have to be entertained and fed on the 81,000-year journey, you would still be very Dead by the time you get there. Sadly, these don't exist yet, so if we send astronauts to Mars in the 2030s they probably just have to sleep like normal humans.
In the meantime as a person who enjoys a good cold nap, I hope they make an earth version of this soon.

Also Read:-Aeolus: Monitoring Weather And Wind Pattern With Laser From Space

What Kind Of Sound You Should Listen To When You Want To Focus?

Some people prefer to listen music to focus and some prefer silence over music to study, write or to be productive. So which one is better for our brain and our body? Let's start by finding out what noise the opposite of silence does our bodies.

Studies were conducted by the World Health Organization that linked noise pollution, like loud city sounds, with higher blood pressure and a higher chance of a fatal heart attack. All right don't panic that neighbour playing Loud music at is not going to kill you. But prolonged exposure to a noisy environment can lead to cognitive deficits as well. Studies have shown that students in schools near airports and train stations have suffered negative effects on long-term memory and reading comprehension, leading some cities to require soundproofing in schools. So noise may not kill you, but it increases your stress levels, which is no Bueno for brain long-term.

Silence, on the other hand, has been correlated with lower stress hormones. Also, studies done on mice in 2013 found that those exposed to silence over white noise or even Mozart expressed higher rates of neurogenesis or the productions of neurons in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that processes memory. Further studies found more evidence that the brain is processing and evaluating new information faster in time of silence over the sound. So less stress, new neurons, new synaptic connections and memory formation sounds good for productivity.

I know what you are thinking but I do my best work when listening to Passenger. Me too love " Let Her Go". But be patient, we are geting there.

Music permeates all parts of the brain, not just the temporal lobe or auditory cortices. If the song slaps or if it is trash, it will activate your Amygdala and parts of your Limbic system responsible for emotional response. what's more, both music and language are auditorily processed both are forms of communication and I don't know about you all but I consider music like a language.

New research shows that there may be neurons in the auditory cortex that activate specifically for music, not language or other random sounds. So if your brain is bussy processing emotions, lyrics and now there are these new other neurons firing, how much attention is left to remember Co-ordinate geometry. Remember that gem from Highschool, Huh?

Science says it depends. A 2010 study found that music may impair cognitive abilities if you are trying to memorize a specific order, it could be thrown off by a key change, a lyrical choice or Drake getting you deep down in your feelings. Even if you are not distracted, a 2006 study measured the effect of tempo on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Slow meditative music can get us to relax slowing booth your heart rate and breathing, but these study found that we are the most relaxed when there is a "silence". So Silence wins?

Well if your goal is complete Zen relaxation while you write that final then yeah try silence. But again, this all depends on a lot of variables lyrics, tempo and genre have all been shown to have various effects on focus, mood and productivity. Anyway if you have a study-music playlist and its work for you then go for that, don't worry much.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You

Self-Healing Technology

Researchers in China have developed a smart coating that behaves like skin which heals itself from damage and is as hard as tooth enamel. This development represents a big step forward in materials science, but self-healing technology isn't a new Technology. There are three main general types of self-healing tech available right now.

  • Embedded - One where the healing agents are embedded in the material
  • Vascular Network - One where a vascular network, which is kind of like your body's veins brings healing agents to the site of damage
  • Stimulus - One where the material is intrinsically capable of healing itself when exposed to certain stimuli.
Some use ionic conduction, some use covalent bonding and conductive silver nanoparticles and then comes the way Chines team do which takes inspiration from the human body. Say your phone screen cracks, with something like this new technology the softer cushy bottom layer reacts to the trauma and provides material to fill in the broken bits of the top layer, while the hardness of the top layer provides a protective coating to allow the healing to take place. The harder top layer is also apparently antimicrobial meaning it could have future implications for biomedical devices.

Other teams around the world have been exploring similar technologies. In last few years we have seen the beginning of soft, self-healing robots that can perform delicate tasks and fit into small spaces and flexible self-healing electronic skin that could attach to a person's body and monitor their health as well as a whole host of other potential applications, like human-robot interaction and prosthetic limb enhancement. These most recent developments are also recyclable which means that while they are promising new technology, they don't promise to create a lot of excess wast in the process.

In 2016, one particularly exciting breakthrough came when a team published research demonstrating a material that was conductive, stretchy and self-healing providing major implications for extending the life of lithium-ion batteries. The big takeaway from this topic is not just a science fiction like tech advancement, but also major environmental implications. Imagine never having a broken electronic that you had to replace because the one you have is Self-healing!

The top layer of this new coating from the Chinese researchers is so had and durable that the team hopes that their self-healing technology will last longer and produce less waste than options that may wear out faster after fewer injuries. But that's getting little ahead of ourselves.  For now, the Chinese engineering team is trying to improve their production process to make it more efficient and less expensive, so that they can hopefully bring a commercial prototype to market in the next few years. They say it would likely be applicable in areas like consumer electronics and maybe even construction. Self-healing building would be pretty sweet.

We may still be a couple of years away from seeing self-healing technologies in stores or in the doctor's office and when they do come around experts say consumers are gone have to pay a premium, cause that's going to be expensive. But it's exciting to see researchers taking the longevity of their technology and the environmental impact of any potential products into account.
If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You

Terraforming Venus and Mars with Sun-Shields & Nukes. Crazy Right?

There is a reason why Venus is often called the hell planet, It's average surface temperature is 864o Fahrenheit which is hot enough to melt lead. Its Airs are suffocating stew of sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide. Its atmosphere is 90 times thicker than Earth's which would literally crush you. Even so Venus as a potential candidate for terraforming which is a process that turns an inhospitable planet into one that could support life.

As we continue to over saturate resources on earth scientists at NASA and Entrepreneurs like Elon Musk are looking to turn other planets into our homes. So what are Some of the Crazy Ideas to terraform our nearest neighbours Venus and Mars?

Let's start with Venus this wild world is a terrestrial planet with the similar size(Radius-6051km), mass(4.87*1024KG) and density (5243 KG per meter cube). It's also pretty close 67 miles away. we can get there by spacecraft in about 5 months, where to reach mars it takes 9 months which is 104 million miles from Earth. While Venus's atmosphere is a total hellscape it does give us something to work with. At about 30 miles above the surface, Venus's atmosphere is pretty Earth-like, with the atmospheric pressure similar to our planet, So some scientists believe building cities high above Venus's smouldering surface could be an option. This Idea is Known As HAVOC High Altitude Venus Operational Concept.

NASA's evolutionary plan would involve sending piloted aeroshells into  Venus's atmosphere. Once in place, the shells would release folded airships that look like blimps. The airships would then use Venus's Carbon Dioxide atmosphere to float. Another Terraforming idea suggests cooling Venus down with a giant Sun blocker. A Sunshade mirror would be placed in between the Sun and Venus. It needs to be slightly larger than Venus's diameter to fully shade the planets. Over time it will cool the atmosphere down and block from the solar wind. As stellar these sound these ideas are just ideas. and they are both far from executable.

So how about the plans to terraform Mars. Well, the red planet is super cold and has a very thin unbreathable atmosphere comprised of 95% of carbon dioxide. Yet its structure and presence of water are similar to Earth. To retrofit Mars one idea proposes importing huge amounts of Ammonia or Hydrocarbons to create a livable atmosphere. These Gases could potentially be mined from icy moons in the outer solar system like Titan. Infusing Mar's atmosphere with Methane and other Hydrocarbons could increase the atmospheric pressure raise surface temperature and produce Water and Carbon Dioxide. This next terraforming idea takes us back to SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk. He proposed melting Mars as polar ice caps by dropping Thermonuclear booms on. The explosions would release carbon dioxide that would thicken the Martian atmosphere at that point liquid water might be able to flow on the surface and it could start a Greenhouse Effect.

So yeah when you compare terraforming ideas thermonuclear booms might be just as unrealistic as a massive sun shield. It's pretty clear we are far from a perfect terraforming scenario. But even if we do find a plausible plan it will still likely take thousands of years and incredible resources before we see humans living on Venus or Mars. But it's Fun to Dream so which planet do you want to see terraformed?

Also Read:- The Thick Atmosphere Of Venus Increases The Rotation Rate By Up To About Two Venus Minutes ( i.e 350,000 Earth Minutes ) Each Venus Day.

How Science Community Stick Together Even If Respected Country or Religion Don't?

Science asks Big Challenging Questions about the Nature Of The Universe.
Answering these questions often requires collaboration across scientific disciplines and national borders. But what happens when countries are isolated, at war or just don't get along. What do scientists do then?

In some areas of science, it's impossible to do research without collaborating with another country. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization or UNESCO reported that in 2015 an average of 1 in 4 published scientific paper listed some form of collaboration with foreign scientists and that number continues to grow.

 For instance, the high altitude, lack of atmosphere and dry conditions in certain parts of Chile make it one of the best places on Earth to view activity in outer space. This is one reason that it is estimated by 2020, 70% of the global infrastructure for astronomical observation will be located in Chile. With the rest of the world's astronomers dependent on their facilities for sensitive measurements, good relations are critical if research in astronomy is to advance.

But consider what happens if countries have a challenging political relationship. India's relationship with Pakistan or China. US relationships with Cuba, for instance, have been famously strained since the 1960's. While the exchange of scientific information was never expressly forbidden, US embargos on everything from travel to trade between the two countries has made it difficult for Cuban scientists to access instrumentation and equipment that scientists outside the country take for granted. This is because modern reagents and scientific equipment are often manufactured in, or contain parts from the United States which exempts them from sale to Cuba. Even with this challenges, Cuba is a superstar of science. They are the first country to receive validation from the World Health Organization for eliminating mother to child transmission of HIV and their lung cancer vaccine was an early success for cancer immunotherapy.

These innovations made formalized scientific collaboration between the United State and Cuba politically more attractive. In 2014 the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Cuban Academy of Science signed a historic agreement to seek opportunities for sustained cooperation. In order for them to fulfil that promise, the two countries had to agree to work together outside of the laboratory and this new found scientific relationship coincided with a general easing of restrictions between the US and Cuba, including a relaxation of travel restrictions and historic visit to Havana by President Obama himself.

Anyway, the public may perceive hostility, but scientific collaboration still thrives because scientists find greater value in science. International collaborations like the Human Genom Project and the Particle Accelerator SESAME in the Middle East (which includes unfriendly countries like Iran, Pakistan, Israel) are pushing humanity's knowledge of universe forward and creating havens of cooperation in a time of increasing nationalism.

When it comes to highly visible international Moon Shot projects like CERN's Large Hadron Collider or the International Space Station, A project reliant on cooperation Russia, The US and others. The whole world is watching. The sheer scale of investment puts these massive collaborations in a delicate diplomatic position that can make them critical points of de-escalation and compromise in otherwise gridlocked negotiations. They can also inspire us to acknowledge that we are all just bunch of humans stuck on a rock racing around the sun all day and night.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You

What Is Ten Times Stronger Than Nuclear Fusion! | Quark Fusion

The particles that make up the neutrons and protons inside of atoms are known as Quarks. From a new study, researchers found that when Quarks bind together energy is produced. Scientists have already been smashing together particles at the Large Hadron Collider but that's been with Hydrogen atoms, not Quarks.

At the Large Hadron Collider, particles are zooming through a 27 Km long ring at near the speed of light. When particles collide scientists are poised to collect lots of data and sometimes in the data strange particles emerge. Totally unexpectedly! This is precisely what happened when what's known as a "Doubly Charmed Baryon" emerged in 2016. It was made up of two Charm Quarks.

The publishing of their paper leads other researchers to draw up the calculation of just how much energy would be needed to fuse these Quarks together and how much energy would be released. They found it would take about 130 MeV to fuse the collision of Charm Quark. But wait there is more...

More researchers theorized that if they fused a different type of Quark, a heavier Bottom Quark, it may produce around 138 MeV which is about 8 times more energy than fusing hydrogen. No need to worry about someone creating a boom out of Quark because the scientists say these type of Quarks won't live long enough after a collision for a chain reaction to happen. In other words, they decay too quickly and won't be usable for weapons. 

Scientists do say it's technically possible to create this fusion with the Large Hadron Collider and there may be a good chance that in the next couple of years this study will do into action. But before you dream about a fusion future Many scientists don't think this will ever work. Also, the amount of energy it will take to even combine these together is so high that the energy getting out of it won't be significantly much more. 

Current clean energy systems are generating a good amount of energy but with quark fusion, if scientists can develop a technology to make it the reality. Well, then we will be talking. 

Do We Need Large Computer Cases Anymore?

The ATX standard that's so common for the motherboards came out all the way back in 1995 and while modern ones have become packed with features, our technology back then was so primitive that we needed sound chips networking drive controllers etc.that often required separate adapter cards. Drives these days don't need as much space anymore both because single drives are much higher capacity than they were 20 years ago and also because physically smaller SSDs have taken off in popularity.

Well believe it or not there are still a number of reasons that you might want to consider an impressively big size case. If you are building a powerful rig that needs more components, like using your computer as a home server such as a NAS (Network Attached Storage) for storing videos or as a big-time editing workstation a PC can require multiple high capacity hard drives, especially if you are using a raid array to backup your work or to speed up your performance. Video footage tends to take up lots of space and bulky hard drives do hold more footage more cheaply than smaller SSDs and more drives mean you might need more Drive headers to connect them too,. Which will mean a higher end motherboard with more of them built-in or more likely an inexpensive add-in cards that have an extra header on it.

But what if you are not video editing or running a server? Well even though many smaller cases can hold up to two graphics cards no problems, you might still consider a bigger case if you still need to add more adapter cards such as a sound card, a video capture card, PCI Express, SSDs or legacy i/o cards that can add older-style ports to a new system for old devices you still like to use.

Scientific instruments are notorious for this and even if none of this applies to you, you still may have components that run hot and a larger case may be able to help you cool things off. The large cases not only will give you more room for both air and water cooling accessories like pumps radiators and fans they can provide more breathing space for your components especially if you are a tinkerer and you are into overclocking your CPU or GPU. On the subject of cooling, larger cases usually offer more flexibility in terms of how you configure them with some of them allowing you to relocate components like pimps or drive cages in a matter of minutes.

Well, everything apart, There are two main straightforward reasons. One, the large case gives you more space to work in making building and upgrading easier and to aesthetics. Some people just like the look of an imposing beefy case. Second, you will get more room to trick it out with RGB fans, custom lighting or even fancy designs etched onto the side panel.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You

Most Galaxies Spiral-Shaped,Why?

When you think of the Milky Way, you probably picture that familiar spiral shape we all have come to know and love. That spiral structure is very common for galaxies, Over three-quarters of the one's we have observed, are in this pinwheel shape. Our own galaxy is actually in a subgroup called barred spiral galaxies. But how exactly spiral galaxies get their shape is still up for debate.

Most galaxies spin around a central point, it's usually a supermassive black hole. It is tempting to think that those spiral arms are practically solid structures, with the same stars all sticking together as they revolve around the centre of the galaxy. If that were true, that would mean that the stars on the tip of the arms have to move faster than the stars near the centre to keep up. 

This doesn't jive well with the laws of physics. In reality, objects move faster when they are closer to the point they are orbiting around, otherwise, they would lose the battle with gravity and fall in. This is Kepler's third law and that is why Earth's orbit takes a year while Mercury's is just 88 days.

This means though that if the arms were made up of the same stars then as the galaxy rotates, the arms would get stretched out and wound up like they were in a cosmic taffy machine. Our Sun takes around 250 million years to do a lap of the galaxy, which sounds like a long time but on an astronomical timescale, it's pretty quick.

At those speeds, spiral galaxies should wind their arms into oblivion before any appreciable length of time and we shouldn't be observing as many of these galaxies as we do. Astronomers call this THE WIND-UP PROBLEM and they have come up with two explanations for the arms.

One is that the arms are not material, but are actually the product of a density wave. As stars travel around the galaxy, they will come to areas where they will bunch up for a while and then areas were they are more spread out. This means that even though the stars are moving inside the arms, the arms themselves look pretty stationary. You can think of it as a traffic jam from a distance the jam appears to stay in one place on the highway, but the cars that make up that jam are actually flowing through it.

What would cause these density waves in the first place is still hotly debated. Astronomers have found that spiral arms could be caused by other nearby galaxies or driven by the large bar shape at the centre of some galaxies. But bars and companion galaxies are not universal, so explaining galaxies that have nither with the density wave model is tricky.

The other popular explanation is Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation, but its friends call it SSPSF. The basic idea behind it is Star formation in a galaxy, causes a shock wave, that kicks off more star formation. The rotation of the galaxy stretches the bright new stars into the familiar spiral arms and they burn out and die as the chain reaction propagates and arms move on.It is possible SSPSF and the density wave model actually work together and stars are formed in the denser areas, making the arms look brighter with their hot new stars.

So those are the most accepted explanations of spiral information, but confirming them can only be answered after hundreds of millions of years of observation. So if you are looking for a career with job security, might I suggest Astronomy?

A Family Tree For The Stars In Our Galaxy

A Biologist and an Astronomer go to dinner. That's not the start of a joke, but it is actually how that astronomer got the inspiration for a new way of thinking about stars. That astronomer was the University of Cambridge's Dr.Paula Jofre and she realized that she could chart stars in the Milky Way the same way we chart the family tree of animal species.

Dr.Paula Jofre and her team picked 22 stars (including our sun) and observed their chemical makeup, their age and their movement to plot them on a stellar " tree of life." They found that the stars they looked at could be plotted on three branches of the tree, with a few miscellaneous ones that didn't fit with the others.

They can tell which stars are related based on their chemical makeup, almost like their Stellar DNA. If they were born in the same gas cloud then their makeup would be similar. This study found 8 of stars they looked at were the Sun's siblings.

The researchers also suggested some of the stars may have originated from another galaxy that was absorbed by the Milky Way. Of course, they only looked at 22 of 100 billion stars. So maybe those 6 that didn't feet with the others have some long lost brother and sister out there. The more they look, the more complete our galaxy's tree of life will be.

Jofre's goal is to get astronomers to think about the history of stars in a new way, so if you are an astronomer don't be afraid to take a scientist from a different field out to dinner. It's not so much a tree of life as maybe a spiral, which is appropriate considering we do live in a spiral galaxy.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You.


We often look up to stars and feel peace, but stars are actually insanely turbulent and chaotic celestial things and we use that chaos to learn more about how our universe works. We have known of stars eating other stars, witnessed stellar flares and white dwarves on the verge of a supernova. But we have not fully grasped what's actually going inside the core of a star.

Observing the interior of a star is pretty much impossible at the moment. So scientists are looking at a phenomenon happening on the surface of stars to better understand their internal structure: STARQUAKES.

Similar to earthquakes here on our planet, starquakes are tremors or waves that occur on neutron stars and other massive bodies. Most stars are balls of plasma, but neutron stars are super dense so they have a crust. Neutron stars crusts are Ten billion times stronger than steel. With this Huge dense body and crust, their magnetic field are interconnected. So when a star rotates quickly, the crust is under pressure from gravity and that fast rotation, causing it to bulge out. If the structure keeps twisting, it can rip the crust open and that creates a starquake.

The resulting release of energy is vast beyond our wildest imaginations. Starquakes are the reminder that space is violent and metal as hell. The biggest starquake ever detected was from a magnetar. Magnetars are a class of neutron star with the most intense magnetic field in the entire Universe.

One starquake on a magnetar released more energy in a tenth of a second than our Sun does in 150,000 years. If the explosion had been within 10 light years of us, experts say Earth could have suffered a massive extinction. Those starquakes emit frequencies that can be detected by the Kepler Space Telescope and scientists interpreted them for our ears.

The reason astronomers looked into this because of some cosmologists believed stars were just out there not really organised. Starquakes were used to prove otherwise. In a recent paper, An international team of astronomers studied starquakes from 48 Red giants in two ancient star clusters. By measuring the waves from these starquakes, they found 70% of the stars had spins that were aligned with one another. It proved asteroseismology can be a successful tool to understand the conditions of stars and discredited these theories that stars were randomly oriented.

Studying the vibrations from stars is very similar to what seismologists do to understand the core of our own planet. For example, if you want to study the earth's interior, we can't just drill a hole into the centre and find out what's going on. Something goes with stars, We can't go in and grab a piece of a star's centre and study it. But the waves created by those quakes can be measured. By measuring the oscillations coming to and from the centre of the star, we can understand it's physical conditions, the size of its centre and more about its origin story.

It's pretty wild that we can use the internal hum of stars that are light years away to figure out how our Universe formed billions of years ago. More research is happily needed. So next time you look up to stars, remember you have actually got front row seats to a celestial Concert.

The Very First Stars That Brought Light Into The Universe

Millions of years after the Big Bang, some stars formed. These could have been the first stars that brought light into the universe. These stars formed right after the DARK AGES, which by the way is the time after the Big Bang but before there was any light, where the universe was filled with just dark gas.

Astronomers found very first stars by using a radio telescope out in Western Australia.
 Radio telescopes are amazing because of their ability to detect radio waves, which are the longest wavelength known to exist in our universe, meaning it can detect stuff that's travelled great distances to get to us. 

Based on changes detected in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, astronomers were able to create models suggesting that 180 million years after the Big Bang, these first stars formed. This adds to previous research and now we are lead to believe that these first stars were probably Blue stars. Based on the spectral classifications of stars we know that these blue stars are hot, young and short-lived. Its believed that these stars might die naturally by a supernova explosion or a collapse of its core into a black hole.

By using instruments at the Murchison Radio Astronomy Observatory, astronomers picked up dips in the frequency received from the early universe and this represents the moment when stars first formed and began interacting with the matter around them. Not only this leads us to a better understanding of our early universe and its evolutionary stages, But according to the scientists, this could possibly be the work of cold dark matter particles pulling energy away from the hydrogen gas and cooling it down.

Fun Fact  The Data Collected From This Research Came From Giant Radio Telescope Antennas That Are Not Much Different Than Those On Your FM Radio.

Now, This is a speculation of course, since we still don't have confirmation of dark matter existing, but this new information could help. So let's see what more research there is to come out of this finding because understanding the early universe means getting closer to find the meaning of life.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious.   

Memory| How To Improve Your Long Term Memory

I feel like I have a completely useless memory. I can barely remember a phone number when someone reads it off to me and I have to read OTP Four times to write it down without looking back to the message. One thing for sure I will never be any good at cards because I have no recollection of which cards I already had and what's been discarded. That's why When I read about memory athletes and people who can memorize any book by reading it once, I just sought at me why can't I? So I research into this and found that maybe I can't be good at memorizing OTP at once and also I can be good at memorizing in general.

There are lots of different kinds of memory For example when you hear a phone number and dial that number yourself you need working memory. Working memory kind of like a CATCH memory in a RAM of a computer. Working memory is the place where the data is kept and processed in the front of your mind spontaneously And it's not a place where you can keep a lot of data. Back in 1956 George A. Miller, a professor at Harvard University,  published a famous psychology paper called " The Magical Number Seven, Plus Or Minus Two: Some Limits On Our Capacity For Processing Information". This paper suggests that there is a limit to what working memory can handle i.e somewhere around Seven Items at a time. You can test that, First take a paper and write down seven random number for example 7873549 then pick some friends of yours and ask them to read it to you, now, take that paper away and ask them to repeat those numbers. You will most likely find that they can only recite 4 to 5 digits correctly.

Since 1956 a lot of research has sort of muddied this claim of the magical number seven. But it is safe to say there is a hard limit on working memory that is SEVEN. If that's true then how memory athletes can memorize entire decks of shuffled cards or even bigger sets of data?

For that kind of task, we are talking more about long-term memory and long-term memory storage is enormous. It's really huge. But it is hard to take advantage of long-term memory, I mean try to memorize this whole article, it would take days to memorize it and it is pretty boring too right?

Here the catch it's all about how we memorize things. With the help of some technique, you can improve your power of using long-term memory. So you can learn to have better memory but you have to train yourself the right way. Researchers wanted to figure out if you could train someone to have a better memory. So they scanned the brain of people like you and me and a bunch of people who compete in memory athletics. Surprisingly they found nada nothing all brains are similar. Meaning, maybe this was a learned skill. So Researchers took some regular people and half of them were trained like the memory athletes do. After two months the people who were trained like memory athletes could remember almost as many words as memory athletes do.

So how memory athletes train them self? How you could learn them

For starter, you want to memorize the order of a shuffled deck of cards. This is a common task for memory athletes, they use a method called the memory palace. First, assign every card an object. The 10 of clubs is an Apple. The Ace of hearts is a light bulb. The four of diamonds is a phone. One object for each 52 card. Now think of a place you are familiar with, like your apartment. Now say you have got a fresh deck of shuffled cards to memorize. Deal them out and as you do imagine each card's object in a striking memorable place within your home. For example Apple on the head of your brother, the light bulb in the pocket of your pent and the phone in a sink. Again, The weirder the better. Do that 52 times and you are done.

I know that doesn't sound like science and honestly, there is a ton we just don't understand about the neuroscience of all of this. But techniques like the memory palace seem to co-operat memory networks that you wouldn't ordinarily use in a card game. One way or other it gets results. Memory athletes use tricks like this to memorize decks of cards, names and faces. That means that it's not about being born with any sorts of special memory gift. It means that you can learn to have a better memory if you train the right way.

All The Science Thinkers Out There Or Who Ever Reading This You Can Improve Your Brain Power And As Always Stay Curious.

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