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How living In Space May Have Changed Scott Kelly's Body

NASA astronaut Scott Kelly returned to Earth after 340-day-long stay aboard the International Space Station. It's the longest amount of time an American astronaut has lived in space, says NASA. The extended stay was part of the space agency's One-Year Mission, an experiment to see how long-term spaceflight changes the human body.

Living for months in microgravity can alter many of the body's systems since humans evolved on Earth. Astronauts who have stayed in space for long periods have problems with their circulation and eyesight. That’s in addition to losses in bone and muscle tissue. Kelly has collected fluid samples and undergone rigorous medical testing to document these changes over the course of his trip.

Kelly’s various samples helped NASA to understand the effects of space on our health. NASA is eager to send astronauts to Mars someday, and a round-trip mission to the Red Planet is going to be at least two to three years. So Astronauts on these deep-space voyages need to know what kinds of health changes they can expect along the way, as well as how to determine whether dizziness is being caused by poor circulation or a disturbed sense of balance. Correct diagnosis is key for managing the effects of space.

Some people also experience more bone loss or eyesight changes than others when in space, and NASA isn't exactly sure why. Scott Kelly’s identical twin brother, Mark, has been serving as a "control" subject for the One-Year Mission by remaining on Earth. Since there are very few differences between the brothers’ genes, comparing samples from the twins will help researchers determine if there is a genetic basis for some of the health effects in space.



Kelly has likely lost a significant amount of muscle mass and bone density while on board the ISS. Just to stand up or walk around on Earth, the body has to work against gravity, which is constantly pulling down. In space, gravity is no longer a factor, so people don't get that same level of exercise just from going about their daily lives. Astronauts must perform up to 2.5 hours of exercises every day, such as running on a treadmill and weightlifting, to counteract this effect.

Kelly's involvement in the One-Year Mission started long before he launched to the ISS. He and his brother Mark took body samples and underwent various medical tests, such as MRIs and ultrasounds, for a year before the spaceflight, according to NASA. The idea was to create a comprehensive picture of how healthy the two brothers were before launch.

Kelly continued taking samples about once a month during his time on board the ISS, according to Scott. He also monitored his heart rate and blood pressure; he even used ultrasound technology on the station to scan his heart and eyes. With all those data NASA is analysing Biological and Mental changes for future long-term missions.

Also Read:- AngieX Cancer Therapy Is Wrapping Up Aboard The International Space Station

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AngieX Cancer Therapy Is Wrapping Up Aboard The International Space Station

A new cancer therapy study is wrapping up aboard the International Space Station this week as an American cargo craft is packed for return to Earth. The Expedition 56 crew also researched how astronauts perceive time and distance in space and back on Earth.

Since the arrival of the AngieX Cancer Therapy, NASA astronaut Serena Auñón-Chancellor has been helping pharmaceutical research to improve the design of safer, more effective therapies targeting cancer tumours. She was examining endothelial cells in space to help determine if they make a good model for targeting the vasculature of tumour cells.

SpaceX Dragon cargo craft was sent to bring the experimental data and crew Member back to earth. NASA astronaut Ricky Arnold has been loading Dragon with hardware and science samples. Results from the AngieX cancer investigation also be stowed in Dragon for retrieval and analysis on Earth. Robotics controllers will release Dragon from the grips of the Canadarm2 Friday 3-8-2018 at 12:37 p.m. EDT.




Another U.S. cargo craft, the Northrop Grumman Cygnus resupply ship, released from the space station on July 15 is getting ready to end its stay in space. The Cygnus was detached from the station’s Harmony module in mid-July and has been orbiting Earth for engineering research. It is due to burning up harmlessly over the Pacific Ocean at 5:07 p.m. 30.7.2018

Alexander Gerst, of the European Space Agency, worked in the Columbus lab module to help doctors understand how an astronaut’s perception of time and distance is affected during and after a mission. Results will help mission planners understand how astronauts adapt to space impacting the success and safety of long-term missions.

Also Read:- Gravitational Red-shift Phenomenon Passed Black Hole Test
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Syphilis | Signs and Symptoms Of Syphilis | Treatment

What is Syphilis?

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. There are four stages of the disease: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary also known as neurosyphilis.


How syphilis transmit?

You can get this disease in the following ways:-

1.Direct contact with a syphilis sore (usually found on the vagina, anus, rectum, in the mouth, or on the lips)
2.During vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an infected person
3. An infected mother can pass syphilis to her unborn child, which can result in serious complications or even death of the unborn child

You can’t catch syphilis from doorknobs, toilet seats, swimming pools, clothing, bathtubs, or silverware.


Signs and Symptoms Of Syphilis:-

The primary stage classically presents with a single chancre (a firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration) but there may be multiple sores.
In secondary syphilis, a diffuse rash occurs, which frequently involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. There may also be sores in the mouth or vagina.
In latent syphilis, which can last for years, there are few or no symptoms.
In tertiary syphilis, there are gummas (soft non-cancerous growths), neurological, or heart symptoms.

Treatment:-

The first-choice treatment for uncomplicated syphilis remains a single dose of intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin. Doxycycline and tetracycline are alternative choices for those allergic to penicillin; due to the risk of birth defects, these are not recommended for pregnant women. Resistance to macrolides, rifampicin, and clindamycin is often present. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended that a treated person avoid sex until the sores are healed.





For neurosyphilis, due to the poor penetration of benzylpenicillin into the central nervous system, those affected are recommended to be given large doses of intravenous penicillin for a minimum of 10 days. If a person is allergic, ceftriaxone may be used or penicillin desensitization attempted. Other late presentations may be treated with once-weekly intramuscular benzylpenicillin for three weeks. If allergic, as in the case of early disease, doxycycline or tetracycline may be used, albeit for a longer duration. Treatment at this stage limits further progression but has the only slight effect on damage which has already occurred.

One of the potential side effects of treatment is the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. It frequently starts within one hour and lasts for 24 hours, with symptoms of fever, muscle pains, headache, and a fast heart rate. It is caused by cytokines released by the immune system in response to lipoproteins released from rupturing syphilis bacteria.

Penicillin is an effective treatment for syphilis in pregnancy but there is no agreement on which dose or way of giving it is most effective. More research is needed into how much antibiotic to give and when to give it.

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Gravitational Red-shift Phenomenon Passed Black Hole Test

A key prediction of Albert Einstein's ideas “Gravitational Redshift” phenomenon proofed to be correct after observing a cluster of stars near the hole at the centre of our galaxy. Gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential.

While some astronomer observing a star, called S2, that passed through the intense gravitational field of Sagittarius A*, the huge black hole at the heart of the Milky Way, By VLT, The Very Large Telescope, in Chile found evidence for Einstein's prediction gravitational redshift.

When a particle of light (photons) climb out of a gravitational well like a black hole. The light's wavelength gets prolonged. Due to this the wavelength to the red part of the light spectrum shift, hence it is called "redshift"

S2 is one member of a star cluster that surrounds Sagittarius A*. These stars reach mind-boggling speeds when they approach the black hole. The S2 comes very close to Sagittarius A* every 16 years.



On the 16th of May 2018, S2 passed close to the black hole. Astronomers were tracking its progress hour by hour when it was happening. As per their data shows, S2 passed by the black hole at a distance of just 17952 million km, it reached an astonishing orbital velocity of 8,000 km/s. That corresponds to about 2.7% of the speed of light.

The astronomers found that light from the star was indeed stretched to longer wavelengths by the very strong gravitational field of the black hole Sagittarius A*. The results were perfectly in line with the theory of general relativity.

The astronomers are continuing to observe S2 and its trajectory. It might lead us new findings about the extreme conditions around the Milky Way's central black hole.

Gravitational redshift occurs because, in order to escape such gravitational well such as a black hole, particles of light (photons) must expend energy. However, at the same time, these photons must travel at a constant speed, i.e the speed of light. Therefore, the photons can't lose energy by slowing down but must expend it in another way. This lost energy manifests itself as a shift towards the red end of the light spectrum.

Also Read:- Triple Star System Provide Confirmation Of The Principle Of Universality Of Free Fall
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Discovery Of Twelve New Moons Orbiting Jupiter

Researchers, led by Scott S Sheppard from Carnegie Institution for Science in the US, first spotted Twelve New Moons Orbiting Jupiter in last year while they were looking for a possible massive planet far beyond Pluto

One strange thing about this moons around Jupiter is that They were spotted travelling in a strange orbit likely crashed into some of the gas giant Jupiter's other satellites long ago. Its like transformation of a few worlds into many.

This new 12 moons bringing the total number of natural satellites circling around the king of planets to 79. The findings include 11 normal outer moons and one(1) that scientists call an “oddball.”

Researchers have known that Jupiter had three groups of moons. Those were the Galilean moons, first discovered by Galileo, which formed from a cloud of gas and dust around Jupiter while the giant planet was young.

Two other groups of moons are essentially objects captured by Jupiter's orbit when they flew too close to the huge planet. Prograde moons travel in the same direction as Jupiter's rotation but are located beyond the closely orbiting Galileans. Retrograde moons travel opposite to Jupiter's spin and in the outer reaches of the Jovian system.



11 of the 12 newly discovered moons fit into these prograde or retrograde groups, but not the “oddball” Valetudo. Scientists are very much interested in it because it might tell researchers more about how Jupiter's moons looked like long ago. An interesting fact about this oddball Valetudo is that it is zipping along in an orbit that is opposite to its retrograde neighbours and that crosses their paths at an inclined angle And It is also Jupiter’s smallest known moon, being less than one kilometre in diameter after this new discovery.

Sheppard was the principal investigator with the research team that made the discovery. He said that his team think that there were three much larger retrograde moons, which were hundreds of kilometres in size. Might be Valetudo hit The parent moons and they were broken apart.

Researchers would like to get a close-up look at the moons, but the trouble is Jupiter lies four times further from Earth than the sun. So a telescope is not able to capture much more than the moons’ orbits. For greater detail, a spacecraft is needed.

NASA spacecraft Juno is orbiting Jupiter right now. But Juno is too close to the huge planet and its field of view is too small to capture images of the planet, Sheppard said. So scientists will have to wait for a future spacecraft, either flying past Jupiter or orbiting it.

Anyhow, this discovery has enlightened us with new information about our solar system. As now we know of this satellites there might be some changes in  NASA's Europa moon mission planned in the late 2020s or early 2030s. So that we might gather more information about these newly discovered moons.

Also Read:-  How Birds Navigate Their Path? | Quantum Compass
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CRISPR | Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats

CRISPR is an acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. This technology is one of the biggest and most important breakthroughs in the field of science. It is a simple and most powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. Its potential applications are correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops. It could revolutionize everything from medicine to agriculture. However, it raises ethical concerns.

In 1987, when Japanese scientists studying E. coli, they came across some unusual repeating sequences in the bacteria’s DNA. Back Then The biological significance of these sequences was unknown. Over time, other researchers found similar clusters in the DNA of other Bacteria and Archaea. They gave these sequences a name: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats aka CRISPR.



Finally, in 2007 a group of food scientists accidentally find the answer to the puzzle. When food scientists were studying the Streptococcus bacteria, which used to make yoghurt, found how these odd clusters actually served a vital function: They are actually a part of the bacteria’s immune system.

We all know that bacterias are always under constant Attack from viruses. So they produce enzymes to fight off viral infections. Whenever the bacteria’s enzymes manage to kill an invading virus, other little enzymes come along and scoop up the remains of the virus’s genetic code then cut it into little bits and store it in those CRISPR spaces.

The bacteria use the genetic information stored in this CRISPR to fend off future attacks. When a new infection occurs, the bacteria produce special attack enzymes, known as Cas9, that carry those stored bits of viral genetic code. When these Cas9 enzymes come across a virus, they see if the virus’s RNA matches what’s in the CRISPR. If there’s a match, the Cas9 enzyme starts chopping up the virus’s DNA to neutralize the threat. For a while, these discoveries weren’t of much interest to anyone except microbiologists, until a series of further breakthroughs occurred.


Scientists have figured out a way to use the immune systems of bacteria to edit genes in other organisms like plants, mice, even humans. With CRISPR, they can now make these edits quickly and cheaply, in days rather than weeks or months. The technology is often known as CRISPR/Cas9.

The genomes of organisms encode a series of messages and instructions within their DNA sequences. Genome editing involves changing those sequences, thereby changing the messages. This can be done by inserting a cut or break in the DNA and tricking a cell's natural DNA repair mechanisms into introducing the changes one wants. CRISPR-Cas9 is the one which can break into DNA sequences and Cut or Insert DNA sequence.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You.
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Triple Star System Provide Confirmation Of The Principle Of Universality Of Free Fall

A pulsar orbited by a white dwarf star, which are both orbited by another white dwarf, provide confirmation of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. A crucial part of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity is based on a principle called the universality of free fall, which means that all falling objects accelerate identically, regardless of their mass or composition. But it was never tested before until now.

Scientists have never been able to fully test this Principle. Because showing that all objects do accelerate the same, no matter how strong the external gravitational field has some special requirements. Thanks to a unique triple star system, this key prediction of Einstein’s theory has passed one of the most rigorous tests ever.

An international team of astronomers conducted the test by combining 818 observations over six years from 3 different observatories, making approximately 27,000 measurements of a star system named PSR J0337+1715, located about 4,200 light-years from Earth. Their findings were published in the journal Nature. 

This triple star system contains three stars: A pulsar orbited closely by a white dwarf star, which is orbited by another white dwarf that is about 1 AU away, which is the same distance between Earth and the sun. Scientist investigated this Triple Star System to measure the influences of the pull of the outer white dwarf over the pull of the outer white dwarf.

Lead author Anne Archibald, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Amsterdam, said that this is the only pulsar known to be in a system with two other stars. Triple systems are very delicate and very few survive the supernova explosion that creates the pulsar. It was the discovery of this unique system that spurred this test of Einstein’s theory. To do this test, they needed a pulsar, which has regular radio pulses with incredible density, as well as other objects in the system, Archibald explained. “The pulsar — a rapidly rotating neutron star — rotates 366 times per second, and beams of radio waves produce pulses at regular intervals and we can use these pulses to track the pulsar. If the pulsar and the inner white dwarf fall differently towards the outer white dwarf, then the pulses would arrive at a different time than expected.




Archibald and her colleagues used three kinds of observations to make very delicate measurements.  They were measuring if the pulsar moved the same way as the inner white dwarf or not. They made frequent observations taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the Netherlands. The less frequent but long (10-hour) observations were made with the Robert C. Byrd Telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia and short monthly observations with the very sensitive William E. Gordon Telescope at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Having all these three telescopes allowed them to cross-check them against each other Which was very essential to confirm that test was giving correct results.

During their observation they ran into many changes, for example, every March line of sight to the pulsar passes within 2.1 degrees of the sun. The solar wind at that point introduces delays in the radio signals they observe. Unfortunately, the solar wind flows out in different directions and different amounts on different days, so compensating for these delays was difficult.

The Pulsar was observed with radio telescope but the observations of inner white dwarf were made with the optical telescope. By there optical observation they measured the motion of the inner companion’s orbit by measuring the Doppler shifts of the white dwarf’s spectrum.

Archibald said, they did not detect any difference between the accelerations of the neutron star and inner white dwarf, and if there is a difference, it would be no more than three parts in a million.

They couldn't drop the stars off a tower, but as the two inner objects move around their orbit with the outer companion, they are continually falling toward it. If the pulsar experienced a different acceleration from the white dwarf, its orbit would be shifted in a way they could detect.

In Einstein's theory, gravity itself has mass, so an object with really strong gravity could behave differently, In fact, once you have an object with strong gravity, Einstein's theory is almost the only one where objects with strong gravity fall the same way as normal objects. So, this is why we needed to use a pulsar

Astronomy is a wonderful way to find out what's out there in the universe, but this sort of observation is the only way to improve our understanding of a force as fundamental as gravity.


If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You  

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Sleeping Posture Pro And Con

Did you know that our nighty sleeping posture can make an impact on our health and how we feel? Some of the sleeping postures maybe bad if so new sleeping postures should be considered among the following.

1.The fetal position

 This is one of the most common sleeping postures and around 40% of people claim that they found it most comfortable. The bad news is that the position is, unfortunately, the unhealthiest. It causes backaches and does harm to joints. Experts warn that it can also affect your neck and soldiers. During the night they should be aligned. If you can't avoid sleeping in this fetal position doctors recommend that you should put a pillow between the knees in such a way you will alleviate stress on your joints.

 2. On your back

 Those who prefer to sleep in their back have a tendency to snore at night but on the other side, this posture is most beneficial of all. It is particularly good if you have back problems and it will resolve neck issues. We sometimes speculate why we feel pain in the back of the neck without even realizing that the main reason could be our sleeping position. Sleep on your back if you want to look younger for longer. This position causes fewer fine lines and wrinkles because there is no pressing on your face. Moreover, this posture allows you to keep the breasts supported which prevents snagging.




 3. Left side

The left side position not only reduces acid reflux but it can also prevent neck and back pain there's a disadvantage, though it is not best posture for the breasts. The breast is not supported which leads to sagging. Since the left side posture stimulates blood circulation to the uterus it is great for pregnant women.

4. Right side

The right side posture may cause hit burn. On the other hand, this position is similar to the last one. They are both good for people suffering from back and neck issues. Unfortunately, this position also causing sagging breasts and wrinkles.

5. On your stomach

 Many doctors agree on the fact that there is nothing as bad as sleeping on your stomach. This position causes different health problems and should be absolutely avoided. If, this is your preferred posture do not surprised if you find out that something is wrong with your back sleeping. In this way, during the night you put too much pressure on your joints and muscles consequently. You may feel numbness and pain while sleeping in your stomach you keep your neck in a rotated position for too long. If this is done regularly then you will have bad blood circulation and problems in breathing. The only thing good about sleeping in your belly is that you are unlikely to snore at night and disturb whoever is sleeping by your side.

In conclusion, we know that regardless of health benefits people sleep in the position they find comfiest. If, you can try to correct your posture, now that you know the pros and cons of each position. If you realize you need to change something about your posture, it will probably be challenging, in the beginning, to sleep in a position that is not the one you used to. However, over time you will become more comfortable. hope this post was useful for you.


If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You
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How Trilobites Extinct?

The Fossils of Trilobites are probably most recognisable Fossils in the world. Flat segmented bodies bristling with antennae and legs. When we think of life in the ancient sea they were everywhere. But Trilobites are famous not just because of their so beautiful functional or because they happened to preserve so well. They are known all over the world because they were everywhere for more than 270 million years. Trilobites thrived all over the planet, scouring the ocean floor from Siberia to Morocco and Canada to Australia. In their time they were the planet's most successful and possibly most abundant animal until they weren't.

The trouble with Trilobites is pretty much the same trouble we have with understanding why any animal that was once so abundant can totally disappear because Trilobites were survivors. The history of these creatures shows that they practically invented survival in order for them to finally go extinct and leave no direct descendants. Nature had tried to kill them like four different times.




Let's start about 540 million years ago, just before the dawn of the Cambrian period. Back then all life on Earth was in the sea and most of it was squishy like Sponge, Worms and Jellies. Yes, there were some Mollusks and simple shelled creatures like Brachiopods. But by and large, if you were an animal you didn't have to worry about protecting yourself from predators. Then about 521 million years ago the first know Trilobites appeared in a place which is now called as Siberia. They may have evolved from small thick-skinned segmented worms like Spriggina. But, Trilobites took the benefits of physical complexity much further. They had legs and they developed complex eyes and a sophisticated digestive system. Plus they were covered from their round heads to their many segmented feet in an exoskeleton made of calcite and chitin. The Trilobite was a true arthropod, a founding member of the group that includes today's arachnid and crustaceans and every insect. By equipped with all of these awesome new features it dominant the Cambrian seas.

Fisting on a diet of worms and other unprotected invertebrates, it flourished and diversified quickly. Within 40 million years of its first appearance in the fossil record, there were at least 60 different taxonomic families of Trilobites ranging from googly-eyed Asaphus to the familiar Elrathia. For millions of generations they thrived by lying low on the ocean floor, but the seas of the Cambrian were becoming increasingly hostile.

The Cambrian, after all, was when predation first appeared on Earth, with animals hunting other animals and Trilobites left behind lots of Fossils with bite marks on them to show it. But by the time the Cambrian came to a close Trilobites like many other animals had picked up some new tricks. The cutest of them Enrolling. Judging by the segmentation of their bodies, some kinds of Trilos like the genus Flexicalymene developed the ability to curl themselves up into little balls like Modern pill bugs or armadillos do, it made it harder for new-fangled predators to sink their teeth into them. But, not all the threats to our little-Armoured friend came from other animals.

Starting around, 445 million years ago, Earth’s climate dealt a double blow to life in the seas. First, a dramatic cooling changed the ocean currents and choked off the supply of warm water foods like algae. Then a period of glaciation locked up lots of Earth's water, which dramatically lowered sea levels. This twofold impact as the Ordovician-Silurian Extinction, wiped out about 25% of all taxonomic families, including about half of Trilobites families. The families of Trilobites that remained were mostly ones that were well adapted to this new world like Dalmanites, which fared well in cooler seas. Then, of course, Trilobites had another problem to deal with.

As the environment continued to change, other organisms had to survive too, under constant evolutionary pressure to adapt or die. The new adoration that had come about during the Cambrian (like pincers, spikes and claws) was really starting to come in handy. But there is one adaptation that may have been Trilobites kryptonite “Jaws”. About 420 million years ago, the first jaws fish appeared and some experts think that these new predators put even a more evolutionary pressure on the Trilobites. Sure enough, about 20 million years after the first appearance of the jaw, a new variation of spiny, spiky Trilobites started showing up in the fossil record like Dicranurus. But Earth's environment had still more surprises in store, starting around 375 million years ago when we don't know what happened exactly. But we do know the results were, suddenly big swaths of carbon-rich sediments were lower down and oxygen levels in the water started to droop. Reef communities began to collapse and those new fish with jaws managed to get by as did new life forms on land like plants and insects. But, most jawless bottom feeders, including the Trilobites, vanished. In the end, these series of unfortunate events known as the Late Devonian Extinction wiped out about 20% of the animal families in the sea, including all but four families of Trilobites.

252 million years ago something changed radically in our planet's atmosphere. Some scientists think it was an asteroid impact. Other points out that it was also a time of tremendous volcanic activity and on top of that Earth's landmasses were changing, which altered climate patterns yet again. Whatever came knocking for Trilobites, it came quickly. Within probably less than a million years, 70% of the species on land were gone and 95% of those in the sea, including the last surviving species of Trilobites.

Anyway, the tale of the Trilobites is really the first success story for the entire animal kingdom. Sure they are gone now, but at the time they were the most advanced animal the world has ever seen and they went on to become one of the most diverse groups of extinct organisms on record with over 15,000 described species. They survived for way longer than many other types of animals. They were around longer than the non-avian dinosaurs and longer than mammals have been, including us. So the question to ask about Trilobites might not be why they extinct, but how they managed to endure for so long. After all, today we are one of the planet's most successful animals, so the Trilobites trouble may someday be our own.


If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You
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Tesla’s Problem

The model 3 it's Tesla’s affordable but capable mass-market electric car. It was supposed to be the automotive industry that is equivalent to an iPhone moment and the company's whole business plan hinges on its success. But as many of you know not all has gone according to plan the model 3 has been production hill according to Elon Musk. So what's the problem?

The main problem for Tesla is their inability to produce enough model 3. In July of 2017, Elon forecasted 5000 cars per week by December 2017 and this wasn't to be recently the production pipeline has been plagued with the problem which hindered the output. This isn't so great for your most critical product. So how low were the numbers? According to Tesla's shareholder report, there was an average of 830 cars per week in the first quarter of 2018 that's less than one-fifth of the goal. In February production was even halted for a week. The forecast had now been pushed to 5000 cars per week by Jun. The good news is things are starting to turn around. In April Tesla was making just Over 2000 model 3 per week and is on track to increase production. So for a wider perspective at this rate will translate to about 220,000 total Tesla’s produced and delivered in 2018 and thinking about it that's not too far off the 300,000 cars sold by BMW in the US in 2017. But keep in mind BMW has much bigger Vehicle range than Tesla. The bad news is that when the Tesla Model 3 was announced an estimated 400,000 pre-order were initially made for the car and that's pretty cool because even if that number did drop it is unprecedented in the Auto Industry. No other manufacturers have had so many advanced vehicle orders but the bad part and the main question is how much longer will they wait. So what went wrong?




Ironically for such a technically advanced company excessive automation was what slow the whole production pipeline down. Musk has stated, “ Excessive automation at Tesla was a mistake to be precise my mistake humans are underrated.” A lot of people may say that Elon is overpromising and under-delivering, but I for one do respect his work ethic. On the plus side for Tesla is the earlier review of the Model 3 are glowing there is a customer satisfaction score of 93 % which is the highest score in Tesla's history, coupled with an infinite warranty for early adopters. It seems to like a lot of people might be happy with the car.

So looking at the big picture as you have already seen know Tesla's competition is rising. In fact, the Jaguar iPace is already in production and Prince Charles was spotted riding one into the commonwealth of Summit, to add to this Ferrari has just tested electric cars and Buick has just stepped into the game as well. As I have previously mentioned this is ultimately a good thing for all of us and Tesla has the advantage of a story and a strong brand image behind them.

It's the question of investors how much longer will They trust Tesla and it's risky just because you are first to do something doesn't mean you end up successful in the long run. I am not saying that Tesla is doing anything wrong but I would not like to see such a company single-handedly change a 100-year-old industry and fail. They have come this far and a lot of people would say that they deserve success for that. I am not alone here Tesla's stock has become a very unusual trading case. It's what analysts are calling a story stock there is a fascinating battle between those investors who love the story of Tesla and strongly aligned with Elon Musk's vision and there are those investors who seem miss forecasts and deadlines and a company burning through cash. So which image of the company is the true one only time will tell. Time and time again it seems like Elon and Tesla have a habit of pulling a rabbit out of a hat.


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What Is Higgs Boson ?

You often hear people say that this Higgs gives things mass and that is theoretically or you can say technically true. But why does there have to be something that gives other things mass? You also hear it called the God particle.

Anyway, without understanding Quantum mechanics and Field theory and the Standard model, it is hard to get any deeper than that and understanding those thing is really complex. So it’s hard to explain, but let's dive into it. First, we should learn about Four fundamental forces. Electromagnetism is the most common force in our daily lives. It is also the thing that keeping your phone or pc stick to your hand right now. But there are also other forces, There is gravity and there are the Strong and Weak Nuclear forces.

The world has previously thought that these forces were continuously radiating fields that came out from the source of the force. But Quantum mechanics doesn't allow for continuousness in that way. So what Scientists have realised is that it is not a field in the traditional way of understanding. It is actually a distribution of particles and the strength of any given field is actually the density of those particles at that point. For example, a magnet which we know has a force around it has a high density of these invisible particles called virtual particles snapping In and out of existence around it. The density of the particles is much higher near the magnet and drops off exponentially as you move away. These particles are very weird and wibbly and difficult to conceive of. But because they are constantly snapping in and out of existence they can't exist in the way that normal matter does without violating the law of conservation of energy which says that things can't just start existing. So they are not matters. But these virtual particles are actually particles.






The trick has been to coax them into existence so that we can study them. Because mass and energy are equivalent, given the right circumstances we can dump enough energy into a system to actually make these virtual particles real particles. We do this using particle accelerator and we have done it before. This is how we know that these force carriers particles actually exist. Physicists figures out that they probably should exist and then they created the circumstances necessary, dumped a bunch of energy in and then they did exist and we sad there! There it is!.

So those are the virtual particles that create forces like Electromagnetism. But mass doesn't feel like a force in that way. Mass is just something that you have all the time. Why doesn't there need to be something to explain that? The idea is that the universe is permitted with an even distribution of a force carrier particle for mass and that is called the Higgs field or the Higgs particles. So that is how according to the standard model we now understand forces.

The question is, Is mass a force in the traditional way? Physicists say that it is. Now, this might seems weird to you because mass just seems like a thing. It is a thing that you have. You have molecules and atoms and they have mass. But something doesn’t have mass. A photon doesn't have mass. But it is very similar to an electron at an elementary level. So why does an electron have mass and a photon do not have mass?

So physicists have sort of agreed upon the idea that it is the Higgs field that gives particles mass and some particles interact with it and those do not. But instead of Electromagnetism which radiates from a point, mass doesn't come from. A point source. Your mass would be the same anywhere in the universe. So Idea is that the Higgs field which is the field that gives things mass exist throughout the entire universe. The other way of saying this is that Higgs force carriers the virtual particles the Higgs boson exist at an even density throughout the entire universe. Particles without mass like photon don't interact with Higgs force carriers and so they don't have mass. And then there are other particles like the electron which interact weakly with the Higgs and thus are light and then the top pharmacy which is the heaviest particles that we know of. Interact very significantly with the Higgs field, so it has lost of mass. So that is the idea I hope that you get it.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You
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Solar Energy



The Sun was humankind’s first source of power and with a little work may be the last one we will ever need. Do you know? A good desert collects more solar energy in six hours than the entire world uses in a year. The surface area of your body is maybe about a meter and a half squared and if you laid out in the Sun all day long every day for a year, you would collect about 1500 watts of solar energy.

Anyway, pretty much all of the power that we humans use originally was solar power. All coal is the fossilized remains of plants and animals that died aeons ago and has been buried in the earth and they got their energy from the Sun. Natural gas and oil same thing the Sun. The nuclear power which produces about 20% of our power is one of the two sources that we have, which is not originally solar power and the other one is tidal which is created by the Moon. Well if you are thinking Hydroelectric power then-No cause water which runs down the rivers come from Ocean by evaporation with the help of the Sun. Wind power as you may have guessed by now all weather on our planet is created by the Sun. Burning trees and corns husk and other biomass which we do in biomass power plants all of those organisms originally got their power from our Sun. Then we have direct solar power, which gets its energy from the Sun and skips all those middleman, so it must be more efficient, right?

Well, It turns out it is more efficient and you do think that being more efficient it would be less expensive, unfortunately, it is not.  When we think about solar power generally what we think of is photovoltaic cells, those big blue panels that people put on their roof to generate electricity. You might be surprised to know that we have known about this photoelectric effect for almost 200 years. It was discovered in 1839 by a 19-year-old kid named Edmund Becquerel.

Edmund Becquerel is part of what we call a scientific dynasty. So Edmund Becquerel discovered the photoelectric effect. His father discovered how to refine ores into their pure metals using electrolysis and his son, along with Marie and Pierre Curie discovered radioactivity.  It’s just interesting to me that there can be that much scientific talent generation from generation in one family.

Anyway, the most efficient solar cell that we have created had found their way into outer space because efficiency is expensive, but it doesn’t matter how expensive something is when you are dealing with the International Space Station because it is not like you can run wire up to it. The International Space Station has 212 ft. long solar wings. All combined at peak these Solar Panels Produce 120 kilowatts of electricity which is a lot.

So now let’s understand the most important part photovoltaic panels. In simplest, if you hit a wafer of polysilicon with light some of the electrons on that silicon will get knocked off and they will be free electrons. Now, this is something that is normal, but it is not anything like the amount of power that you would need to create a solar panel. But what scientists and engineers figured out is that if you dope,(that’s a technical term it just means lacing it with impurities), the silicon with phosphorus it suddenly has way too many electrons and then you get what we call N-type silicon, N because is is negative. and then if you take another wafer of silicon, and you dope it with boron you will get P- type silicon, P for positive. A traditional solar panel is just a layer of N-type silicon sandwiched on top of a layer of P-type silicon and then connected with a conductor which we call a wire. stick something on top of that wire and you can power it with a solar panel.  Depending on the size of that panel it could be a calculator, a house or a space station.



The trick is how do we either get solar panels to be so efficient that they can make up for their high costs or We can find new less expensive materials that we can use to create photovoltaic panels.

 Now I have to get off topic a little bit here and talk about how solar power has an advantage that not a lot of people think about. In generals when we produce power as humans we do it at grant power station which are often hundreds of miles away from where the power is actually used. In order to get the power from the power station to your house, you have to put it on these giant transmission lines which are extremely expensive and also having the power travel all that distance is inefficient. You can lose as much as 30% of the power that you generate just getting it from one place to another which frankly is embarrassing. We created all those megatons of carbon dioxide just so we can lose the power when we are distributing it. But with solar power, you can actually generate the power exactly where you are using it. You can put the panel on your roof and use it in your house. We call it distributed power and it is great.

It does sometimes make sense to use solar power in a centralized fashion giant fields full of solar panels especially if those giant fields are in places where the sun shines 364 days a year. But don’t get too excited despite the marvellous efficiency of distributed power. Solar panels still remain much more expensive than centralized power stations. Photovoltaic panels now blanket rooftops all over the world but while they make ecological sense they still don’t make economic sense. Getting a good value for your dollar from a solar panel is pretty much impossible, which is why we are still so reliant on coal and natural gas for most of our electricity.

To this day we get more power from burning woods than we do from the solar panels. So you might be saying to yourself that there got to be a better way to do this and maybe there is if you were a particularly malevolent or scientifically- minded child, you may have experimented with a magnifying glass to create power and you are probably used that power to burn paper or to light a match. Sunlight carries a lot of energy and if you concentrate it into one place you can do a lot of work and I prefer if we would be using that work to push electrons into your house so you can watch your pc or smartphone whatever you are holding now. But Magnifying glasses are far too expensive to use in solar power plants so instate we use mirrors. These are called concentrating solar power plants. In general what has been done is that we use the mirror to focus light on a single point and there is two real ways that it is done. One you build a giant tower and then you fill a field with mirrors and you make sure that the mirrors are always focusing the sun on the top of that tower. Now as you might expect building a giant tower that can handle being heated to some ridiculous heat is kind of expensive but it is cheaper than pure photovoltaic. Second they will build giant mirrored  thoughts like parabolic sort of half-cylinders and in the middle of those they will put  pipe so by the time the water finished traveling, it is so hot that As soon as it enters in bar, the water immediately vaporizes and that's generally how powerplant work, you vaporize water and the vapor takes up much more space than the liquid and so these is a tremendous amount of pressure and they use that pressure to drive turbine, which creates electricity. But even with all that fancy engineering concentrated solar power plans still, in the best of circumstances only produce power at about 11 cents per kilowatt-hour, which is about twice as much as the natural gas power plant.

But wait a minute, now we got two solar solutions. One, photovoltaic where the capture of the energy is the most expensive part and two concentrated solar power where the conversation of the energy into electricity is the most expensive part. What if we could have both of these technology and have the best of both worlds? Well, it turns out that we can and it may just be the one solution that allows solar power to become cost-effective in our energy market. By using really sophisticated photovoltaic cells that can take in far more power than the one in your calculator. Engineers and scientists are using mirrors to concentrate light on very small photovoltaic cells. Now, mirrors which are actually capturing the light are 10 times bigger than the solar panel and thus the solar panel is taking in 10 times more sunlight and producing 10 times more energy but the solar panel itself the expensive part, stays the same size. Using this technique which we call “concentrated photovoltaic” we get the most cost-effective form of solar power that we currently have on the market today. They call it CPV for “ concentrated photovoltaics” and there several gigawatts of it getting ready to go online in the next 10 years or so. It’s important to note that a gigawatts is a lot of electricity that's about as much as produced by the largest nuclear power plants in America.

Now Going back to the space station for a moment mostly just because I want to show more of it. As I said before it doesn't matter how expensive the panels on the Space Station are cause there is no other way to get power up there. Now when I sad that those solar panels create about 120 kilowatt of electricity I was kind of lying to you. About half the time the panels on the Space Station are producing 0 watts of power and that's because it is in the shadow of Earth. And here on Earth when we are standing here we call that shadow night time and it is the nemesis of solar power. So unfortunately it would seem that solar power could never satisfy 100% of our energy need. We will always need something else whether it is coal or nuclear or natural gas to keep the lights on at night. Unless of course, we find some way to store the power up during the day and then let it all loose at night. Well, turns out we can do it by saving it in the battery. Any way there is a term in Physics call conservation of energy that means you can't get more out of a system than you put in. What I am trying to say is Solar Energy is expensive but if we love Our home sweet home Earth we should ignore the cost.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You
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Am I Sex Addicted?

Sex addiction is it actually a thing? According to the American Psychological Association, No There is no such thing as Sex Addiction. Despite the ongoing research and buzz around this disorder attempts to get it classified as an actual legitimate thing has been rejected.

The psychologist at UCLA, those who are pushing this for its recognition, claim that sex addiction is recurrent. The intense sexual fantasies, sexual urges and sexual behaviour that last at least six months. So that’s a broad definition. Recurrent sex fantasies and sexual urges beyond six months, If I consider that then I have been sex addict since I was 13. Really! and most of my friends that I know are also Sex Addicted. But maybe there is something here that is going on between the lines.

For instance, I wonder about people who can’t stop watching porn at work, people who sacrifice social life and hobbies to stay at home and jerk. This type of compulsive behaviour can interfere negatively with someone’s life. It can cause them distress and complicate their relationships.

However, when it comes to defining hypersexuality I am with the American Psychological Association. Recurrent sexual fantasies and urges are not a disorder in themselves. I have noticed a few general issues with much of the hypersexuality research that I have checked out. My first concern is that this disorder turns much of the normally expected variability in people’s sexual behaviour into some crazy mental disorder. People regularly misbehave sexually in all kinds of mostly harmless ways, but misbehaviour to the point of sexual compulsion not so common. So finding a reliable distinction between oh that’s normal and well that’s kind of whack is trickier than it looks.

The second problem with hypersexuality is that it’s unclear where the behaviours coming from. It could be something that’s learned or could it be a product of a general compulsion that leads into their sex life.



The third issue with the formation of this disorder is that labelling someone a sex addict may very well tell us more about society’s attitudes about sex, than the person themselves. For instance, we still can not come to terms with the fact that teenagers have a lot of sex and there are lots of people deny that sex can be more than heterosexual intercourse in the missionary position.

As a society, we are often in denial about what normal healthy sexual behaviour looks like. None of us is exempt from the mostly unconscious biases we have learned through our social training, not even research psychologist. That’s my take any way I would love to know what you all think though do you think sex addiction is a real disorder?

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You
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Universal Window Platform | UWP

By now you probably expect to be able to run software and services on lots of different platforms like Facebook works on your smartphone and on your pc and you can watch Netflix on your 4K TV, your computer or on your tablet. But supporting all these different devices means more work for software developers, sometimes to the point where they won't even bother rewriting a programme that you like for different operating system or if they do it ends up being buggy and inferior. But fear, not the ever merciful Microsoft has come to our rescue with its Universal Window Platform or UWP.

An API that shifts between operating systems and the program to make it more easier for developers to code programs just once for a number of different devices even if they aren't using a traditional x86 processor from Intel or AMD that is as long as those devices are running a Microsoft operating system. So UWP will work on Windows 10, the Xbox one and HoloLens.

So, UWP achieves this by having a number of core API’s that work behind the scenes to allow code to be understood and executed properly across these devices. It also got some features that are more visible to you , the consumer, like an ability to scale visual elements properly depending on whether you're using an app on  a large screen with a keyboard and mouse or a much smaller device with touch and if a developers want to add additional features  that are only available in certain platforms like touchscreen toggle or keyboard support he or she can use adaptive code that will only run if the UWP app is running on that type of devices or even restrict the app to one platform.




You see this actually with certain games that are only intended to run on Xbox for licensing reasons or apps that are locked to touchscreen devices because their UI design requires it. But while Microsoft's relational is that making UWP  apps only available through the Window stores allow them to screen them for improved user security this move has opened the program up to a number of criticisms. One huge one is that this UWP + Windows store system is a walled garden meaning that this platform that Microsoft is extremely encouraging developers to code for originally could not be updated or even loaded outside of the Microsoft store making it is a fairly closed ecosystem.


This generated concern that Microsoft might be demanding too much control over what programs can and cannot be run on their devices and how they can be run. Although standard versions of windows 10 obviously allow you to run compatible programs from any source and Microsoft has updated Windows to allow loading of UWP apps directly from publishers without going through the Windows store. Microsoft is still trying to find creative ways to encourage users to fulfil all of their software needs from the Windows store as with the step down Windows 10 S and the more recent S mode for the regular Windows that prevents outside executables from being installed.





In fact, the CEO of epic games wasn't shy about sharing his disdain for UWP despite the fact that his studio produced gears of war for a major UWP title speaking of gaming though. Although UWP does have the benefit of allowing you to play the same game on PC and Xbox without needing to buy it twice. In many cases enthusiasts have noticed that UWP has a tendency to lock down games in some ways prevents them from being modded working with multi-GPU setups or even simply not managing to play nicely with frame counting programs and these are just a few examples, So combine all of this with the fact that UWP is strictly for Microsoft operating systems and won't improve the shamelessness of your experience If you don't use an Xbox or a Windows.

If You Have Any Queries Then Feel Free To Ask Us Down In The Comment Section And Visit To The Science Thinkers Again. As Always Stay Curious And Thank You
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Bombay Blood Group

Bombay blood group is a rare one it is found only in four out of one million people. It is so rare that there are only 400 registered donors for this blood group in India, which is home to over 1,354,051,854 people. But how did Bombay Blood get its name?

Blood groups were discovered in 1900 by Australian scientist Karl Landsteiner. They come in four types A, B, AB and O. The blood group actually indicates the antigens found on the red blood cells. Broadly there are two types of antigens A and B. Blood with A antigen is called A group while blood with B antigen is called B group. If the blood has both antigens then it is called AB if it has neither then it is called the O group.


In 1952 a trio of doctors at Bombay KEM Hospital came across a patient whose blood would not match with A, B, AB or O. It turns out that antigens A and B have an ancestral antigen called H and all three of them A, B and H were missing at KEM hospital patients blood. After trying 160 unsuitable donors, finally found a matching donor, since he was from Bombay they called it the Bombay blood group.


A person with the Bombay blood group is a universal donor but they can accept only from the same group. Since sometimes they can get erroneously labelled as the O group. A specific testing for antigen H will confirm if it is indeed the Bombay blood group.




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