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Diagnose Of SEDs In Clustered Environments Unraveling The Stellar Content Of Young Clusters

Around twenty-five percent (25%) of young stars in our galaxy form in clustered environments and stars in a cluster are often close enough to each other to affect the way they accrete gas and grow. For many years astronomers are trying to understand the details of star formation which is not easy. Studying the relative abundance of massive stars to low mass ones by taking such complicated clustering effects into account and analysing such complicated clustering effects are really had. Measuring the actual demographics of a cluster is not easy either.

Young stars are embedded within obscuring clouds of natal material. Only infrared radiation can escape so astronomers examine these regions at infrared wavelengths using the shape of the spectral energy distribution (the SED—the relative amounts of flux emitted at different wavelengths) to diagnose the nature of the young star(i.eits mass, age, accretion activity, developing disk, and similar properties). One major complication is that the various telescopes and instruments used to measure an SED have large and different-sized beams that encompass multiple objects in a cluster. As a result, each point in an SED is a confused blend of emission from all the constituent stars, with the longest wavelength data points (from the largest beams) covering a spatial region which is ten times larger than the shortest wavelength points. 

The astronomers apply their method to seventy young, low mass stellar clusters observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera, and derive their physical properties. Their results are in excellent agreement with general expectations for the distribution of stellar masses. They also find several unexpected preliminary results, including a relationship between the total mass of the cluster and the mass of its largest member. The team plans to extend the wavelength ranges included in their SED analysis and to increase the number of clusters analyzed.

Also Read:- The Evolution Of Magnetism In The Unfolding Universe

Study Over Movement Of Intergalactic Gas And Dust Confirm That Half Of Our Milky Way Came From Distant Galaxies

Astronomers looking at how intergalactic gas and dust moves across great distances found that up to half of the matter surrounding us comes from galaxies far, far away.

Our Earth became habitable mainly because of water and Interesting fact about water is It is an alien stuff for our planet, came to Earth with asteroids. Like that, as much as half of our Milky Way likely came from distant galaxies. It is likely that much of our Milky Way’s matter was in other galaxies before it was kicked out by a powerful cosmic wind, travelled across intergalactic space and eventually found its new home in the Milky Way.

Astrophysicists who were analyzing galaxy formation recently looked at how intergalactic gas and dust is transported over time and across great distances. They found that up to half of the matter in our Milky Way galaxy likely comes from other galaxies far, far away. This kind of analysis is first of its kind. These findings are opening a new line of research into understanding galaxy formation.

Anglés-Alcázar and his fellow researchers used a supercomputer simulation based on the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) project, which is co-led by Northwestern physics and astronomy professor Claude-André Faucher-Giguère. FIRE uses numerical simulations that can produce realistic 3D models of galaxies. Anglés-Alcázar developed state-of-the-art algorithms to follow how a galaxy forms over time, from just after the Big Bang to the present day.

After Spending literally several million hours of continuous computing time, the team was able to quantify how galaxies acquire matter from the universe over time. They did this by “tracing cosmic inflows, galactic outflows, gas recycling, and merger histories,” according to their paper.

The simulations showed that supernova explosions within galaxies eject enormous amounts of gas, which causes atoms to be transported from one galaxy to another via powerful galactic winds. Even though galaxies are far apart from each other, the galactic winds propagate material at several hundred kilometres per second. Over several billion years, this process infused new material into galaxies, sparking star formation. The findings on galactic evolution were unexpected, and the researchers coined a new term to explain the phenomenon: intergalactic transfer.

This study transforms our understanding of how galaxies formed from the Big Bang. What this new model implies is that up to one-half of the atoms around us including in the solar system, on Earth and in each one of us comes not from our own galaxy but from other galaxies, up to one million light-years away. This study gives us a sense of how things around us are connected to distant objects in the Space.

Also Read:- The Evolution Of Magnetism In The Unfolding Universe

The Evolution Of Magnetism In The Unfolding Universe

5 Billion Light-Years Away Galactic Magnetic Field That Has Ever Been Observed Provides Intriguing Clues About The Evolution Of Magnetism In The Unfolding Universe.

An international group of physicists has measured the most distant galactic magnetic field that belongs to a young galaxy, named CLASS B1152+199, that is located five billion light-years from Earth. Previously scientist thought that magnetism in galaxies starts off weak but becomes stronger and more organized over time, but the data collected from mention star says differently. This new discovery is providing intriguing clues about the evolution of magnetism in the unfolding universe.
Galaxies have very weak magnetic fields about a million times weaker than the Earth’s magnetic field. But magnetism is thought to play an important role in the physics of the interstellar medium in galaxies, shaping how gas flows in spiral arms, around bars and in galaxy halos. Magnetic fields are also essential for the onset of star formation.

Bryan Gaensler, an astronomer with the University of Toronto who co-authored a paper about the discovery, said  “This means that magnetism is generated very early in a galaxy’s life by natural processes, and thus that almost every heavenly body is magnetic, The implication is that we need to understand magnetism to understand the universe. Problem is nobody knows where cosmic magnetism comes from or how it was generated. But now, we have obtained a major clue needed for solving this mystery, by extracting the fossil record of magnetism in a galaxy billions of years before the present day.”
Magnetic fields can’t be detected directly. The only way to identify them is through lensing events. The researchers are using gravitational lensing to study the magnetic field. Astronomers used a coincidental alignment where light from a bright and distant quasar passing through the galaxy being studied, known as gravitational lensing, enabled these very difficult observations.
As light from the quasar travelled toward Earth, its path was bent by the gravity of CLASS B1152+199, similar to how the trajectory of a spacecraft is changed as it flies by a planet. The bent light from the quasar travelled along different paths, creating multiple observations, which is the key to getting the measurements necessary for astronomers.

Using the Karl Jansky Very Large Array in New Mexico, the team was able to measure a property of the radio wavelengths of light called polarization that changed when passing through the magnetic field of the foreground galaxy. The astronomers measured this change, called the Faraday rotation effect, of the lensed quasar images to show that the lensing galaxy hosts a discernible large-scale magnetic field.
They were able to determine that the young galaxy CLASS B1152+199 has a magnetic field similar in current configuration to the Milky Way. The results, published in Nature Astronomy, indicate that galactic magnetic fields may take shape early on in a galaxy’s lifetime and remain stable as it evolves.
Magnetic fields occur due to dynamo processes where the mechanical energy from rotating and convecting fluids or gases is transformed into magnetic energy. In stars, the magnetic field is produced from rotating ionized gas.  How the dynamo operates in large-scale structures like galaxies and how it creates a magnetic field is not well understood, but is thought to be tied to the circulation and turbulence within the interstellar gas.
This new detection of a strong magnetic field in a galaxy when the universe was about two-thirds of its current age provides an indication of how fast these fields grow in galaxies.
To confirm their findings and better understand galactic magnetic fields, the team will continue their observations.
Also Read:- Discovery Of Twelve New Moons Orbiting Jupiter!

NASA's Parker Solar Probe

On Aug 12 NASA's Parker Solar Probe launched at 3:31 a.m. EDT (0731 GMT) from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, The United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket will carry the probe safely near to the orange flame into the predawn sky.

NASA's Parker Solar Probe will come within 3.9 million miles (6.2 million kilometres) of the sun seven times closer than any other spacecraft ever has. The specially shielded Parker Solar Probe will have to endure temperatures up to 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit (1,370 degrees Celsius) and solar radiation intensities 475 times higher than we're used to here on Earth.

If all goes according to plan, the Parker Solar Probe will end up travelling faster than any craft ever has and it will fly through our star's outer atmosphere, known as the corona. The measurements the probe going to makes there will reveal key insights about our star's inner workings that have eluded scientists for decades.

It will be gathering a variety of data about the sun's structure and magnetic and electric fields, as well as the energetic particles cruising near and away from Earth's star. This information could help researchers solve two long-standing mysteries: How the solar wind is accelerated and why the sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, is so much hotter than the solar surface.

After Eugene Parker, a pioneering astrophysicist of the University of Chicago, prediction that the sun is outgassing proved to be true NASA was interested in studying our Sun closely. Now that dream meets reality. Parker, who turned 91 in June, became the first living person ever to have a NASA mission named after him.

The observations that will be made by Parker Solar Probe could help solve the coronal-heating and particle-acceleration puzzles, mission scientists have said. It will give us a better idea of how stars tick in general. Hopefully, we might get better at understanding our sun.

Also Read:- Coronal Mass Ejections | Could Explosions on the Sun Harm Earth?

The Astronauts Who Will Fly The First Missions Into Space On Commercially Provided Rockets And Capsules

In 2018, The nine individuals will go to ISS on systems developed by the Boeing and SpaceX firms. It is for the first time the astronauts will fly into space on commercially provided rockets and capsules.

Those Nine are Victor Glover, Robert Behnken, Michael Hopkins, Douglas Hurley, Eric Boe, Sunita Williams, Christopher Ferguson, Josh Cassada and Nicole Mann.

The commander on the historic last shuttle mission, Chris Ferguson, is now a Boeing employee and has been heavily involved in developing the company's CST-100 Starliner capsule. Douglas Hurley was the pilot on the last shuttle mission. Robert Behnken has been in space on two previous occasions and Suni Williams is one of the most experienced American astronauts in history, who have spent a cumulative 321 days in orbit through her career.  Eric Boe is a former shuttle pilot. Victor Glover, Michael Hopkins, Josh Cassada and Nicole Mann are well trained for their first step into space. We hope their mission will be a historic one.

NASA has worked closely with the companies throughout design, development and testing to ensure the systems meet its safety and performance requirements. The initial crewed flights by Boeing and SpaceX will spend a short period in orbit measured perhaps in days or a few weeks and then they will be attached to the International Space Station (ISS) before coming back to Earth.

Nasa's motive behind such initiative was to save money then spend on a rocket and capsule system to take humans back to the Moon and on to Mars. Well, it seems like it is working and we hope best for their upcoming mission.

Also Read:- GOES-17 Is Now Fully Operational, But Root Cause Has Not Been Determined Yet

The Thick Atmosphere Of Venus Increases The Rotation Rate By Up To About Two Venus Minutes ( i.e 350,000 Earth Minutes ) Each Venus Day.

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has the longest rotation period of any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets.

The planet has extremely thick air, which flows much more rapidly than the rate at which the solid planet spins. As that thick atmosphere pushes against the planet’s mountains, it can change how quickly Venus spins.

Researchers used a computer to simulate the movements of that thick atmosphere. It whips around at 100 meters per second (around 224 miles per hour). Those winds exert enough push against mountains on one side of the planet and suction on the other side to alter the speed of the planet’s rotation. The thick atmosphere increases the rotation rate by up to about two minutes each day. Each Venus day, that is. And each day on this planet is 243 times longer than one on Earth.

All the precise measurements of the rotational period (day length) on Venus have varied by up to seven minutes. This error might be explained by the push and pull of the air over the planet’s mountains.

But scientists think there is some kind of other force that slowing the planet’s spin. Because planet’s spin isn’t accelerating in the rate it supposes to be. Researchers suspect it could be the sun’s gravitational influence.

The researchers reported their calculation in the July issue of Nature Geoscience.

Also Read:- Terraforming Venus and Mars with Sun-Shields & Nukes. Crazy Right? 

GOES-17 Is Now Fully Operational, But Root Cause Has Not Been Determined Yet

GOES-17, also known as GOES-S, is the second of the current generation of weather satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The four satellites of the series (GOES-16, -17, -T, and -U) will extend the availability of the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system) until 2036 for weather forecast and meteorology research. The satellite was built by Lockheed Martin, was based on the A2100A platform, and will have an expected useful life of 15 years.

NOAA's GOES-R series of satellites is designed to improve the forecasts of weather, ocean, and environment by providing faster and more detailed data, real-time images of lightning, and advanced monitoring of solar activities and space weather. GOES-17 can collect three times more data at four times image resolution, and scan the planet five times faster than previous probes.

In MAY 2018 The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said that the cooling system of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the GOES-17 weather satellite did not start up as planned during on-orbit checkout. The problem here is cooling system. The cooling system is needed to keep ABI’s detectors at an operating temperature of 60 Kelvin. That system is not working sufficiently for 13 of the instrument’s 16 bands, at infrared and near-infrared wavelengths, during part of each orbit. Three other bands, which operate at visible wavelengths, are not affected by the cooling issue. Other instruments on the spacecraft are also not impaired.

On July 24, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced Engineers have made some progress in restoring the performance of the key instrument on a weather satellite. But they have yet to fully correct the problem or determine its root cause.

NOAA officials said they had been able to improve the availability of infrared and near-infrared channels on the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument on the GOES-17 satellite since the agency first reported the problem

As one team works to improve the performance of the ABI on GOES-17, another team is tracking down the root cause of the instrument. Sullivan, director of the GOES-R system program, said the issue appears to be with loop heat pipes that contain propylene coolant.

NOAA still expects to put GOES-17 into service later this year as GOES-West at 137 degrees west, replacing GOES-15 at that orbital slot. "Even during this checkout phase, GOES-17 is observing with more channels and a higher resolution with more rapid refresh than what we currently have with the current GOES-West satellite," Sullivan said. "While we're not going to get the full GOES-17 functionality, we are going to receive more and better data than we currently have."

Also Read:- Are We Going To Travel In An Affordable Supersonic Aeroplane Soon?

Are We Going To Travel In An Affordable Supersonic Aeroplane Soon?

Supersonic commercial aeroplanes are in play  for a while now. But it is not affordable and commercially profitable. It is a showpiece speed star not doing any real good for the humanity. But there have been some major breakthrough in past decade and rumours are by 2025 this new prototype would be ready to serve as a regular flight.

Three US aerospace firms - Boom Supersonic, Aerion Supersonic and Spike Aerospace - are racing to be the first to slash travel times across the globe, with passenger jets that can travel faster than Mach 1 - the speed of sound (761mph or 1,225km/h at sea level).

The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003. It was really ahead of its time. It was a massive technological achievement but it was incredibly fuel-inefficient and for that reason was very expensive to operate.

Technologically, supersonic flight is not complex to achieve. The challenge is offering a service that passengers can afford, is less polluting, and crucially, that eliminates Concorde's window-rattling sonic booms. The huge thunder-clap-like noise created when an aircraft breaks through the sound barrier can even cause damage to structures.

The most important Question has been asked by you is that How? What solution the engineers have found?
The simple answer is by killing the sonic boom.

Lockheed Martin won a $248m (£191m) contract from US space agency Nasa to build a low-boom flight demonstration aircraft. Known as the X-59 QueSST [quiet supersonic technology], it will fly at Mach 1.42 (940mph) at 55,000ft, and generate a sound about as loud as a car door closing, Nasa says.

The key to eliminating the sonic boom is in the design of an airframe. In a conventional supersonic jet, the shockwaves coalesce as they expand away from the nose and tail - leading to two distinct sonic booms.

The trick is to shape the aircraft in such a way that the shockwaves remain separate as they travel away from the aircraft. This means they reach the ground still separated, generating a quick series of soft thumps.

The aircraft should be completed by the end of 2021, and in mid-2022 Nasa will start flying it over various US cities to collect data about how people on the ground respond to the flights.

So no boom means no harm will come to people on land. Current regulations say civil aircraft can only go supersonic over water. But to get these Supersonic aircraft on market International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) has to draw up new rules regarding supersonic flight over land. After some testing and experimentation that can be achievable.

One Question Remain “what about the costs?”

A flight on the Concorde could cost four times the first-class fare. But all three firms say they aim to make supersonic travel no more expensive than today's business class fares.

The flight time from Shanghai to Los Angeles - currently about 12 hours - would shrink to a little over six hours.

Instead of a $20,000 round-trip across the Atlantic, it's more like $5,000. That is still expensive relative to the economy, but if you can afford to fly front-cabin you can afford to get there in half the time.

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